Florida Everglades | Nature Boom Time

Florida Everglades | Nature Boom Time


[TICKING].[ALARM].[FIREWORKS].♪ ♪ CHARLIE: WHAT’S UP GUYS? I’M CHARLIE, THAT’S KIRBY. KIRBY: HEY! CHARLIE: AND TODAY
WE’RE BACK COUNTRY CAMPING IN EVERGLADES PARK. WHY? BECAUSE KIRBY LIKES
WRESTLING CROCODILES. KIRBY: UM, NO. CHARLIE: WE’RE ACTUALLY
HERE TO CHECK OUT SOME OF THE COOLEST TREES IN
THE ENTIRE WORLD, THESE GUYS
AROUND ME, MANGROVES. ALRIGHT, SO FIRST, A
LITTLE BIT OF BACKGROUND. WHILE PAT WAS AWAY AT SCHOOL,
KIRBY AND I DECIDED TO TAKE A QUICK TRIP DOWN THE
SOUTHERN TIP OF FLORIDA FOR A LITTLE CANOEING, WHICH
TURNED INTO A LOT OF CANOEING, LIKE A LOT OF CANOEING. LIKE 27 HOURS OF CANOEING
OVER THE COURSE OF THREE DAYS, SO MUCH CANOEING. WE SPENT ALMOST THE WHOLE
TIME NAVIGATING THROUGH THESE INSANE TREE TUNNELS,
HOW NEAT ARE THESE? SUPER NEAT, AND CONFUSING. WE GOT LOST A FEW TIMES,
BUT WE FIGURED OUT THAT THESE TUNNELS WERE PRETTY MUCH
ENTIRELY MADE OF TREES CALLED MANGROVES. ALRIGHT, THERE ARE A
BUNCH DIFFERENT OF KINDS OF MANGROVES IN THE WORLD,
BUT THE ONES AROUND ME ARE CALLED RED MANGROVES. WHY RED MANGROVES? I HONESTLY HAVE NO IDEA,
BUT I DO KNOW THEY’RE SOME PRETTY COOL TREES. ALRIGHT, SO IN THE
WORLD OF MANGROVES YOU’VE GOT WHITE MANGROVES
THAT LOOK PRETTY NORMAL. BLACK MANGROVES WHICH
ARE A LITTLE STRANGE, YOU’VE GOT A COUPLE
OTHER KINDS THAT MAY OR MAY NOT EXIST
AND RED MANGROVES, WHICH ARE DEFINITELY
THE CRAZIEST LOOKING MANGROVES OUT THERE. I MEAN FOR ONE THING,
CHECK IT OUT, THEY LOOK LIKE THEY
HAVE A BUNCH OF LITTLE, TINY TRUNKS THAT ARE
TANGLED UP IN A BIG OLD MESS. THESE ARE ACTUALLY ROOTS, CALLED PROP ROOTS
OR STILT ROOTS. YEAH, SO EVEN THOUGH
THEY’RE ABOVE GROUND, THEY’RE ACTUALLY A PART OF
THE ROOT SYSTEM OF THE TREE. IT’S LIKE A SUPER
SPECIAL KIND OF ROOT, CALLED A PROP ROOT. AND, THEY’RE PRETTY
IMPORTANT TO THE FUNCTION OF THE ENTIRE TREE. WITHOUT THESE PROP ROOTS,
RED MANGROVES WOULDN’T SURVIVE, AND NEITHER WOULD THIS
ENTIRE FLORIDA COASTLINE. SO WE’RE RIGHT NEAR
THE OCEAN RIGHT NOW, AND TIDES, WAVES, AND STORM
SURGES BEAT DOWN REALLY HARD ON THE COAST. WHAT THESE PROP ROOTS DO, IS THEY SLOW
THINGS DOWN A LITTLE, KIND OF LIKE A
BREAK WALL AT THE BEACH. THEY CAUSE SEDIMENT
TO SETTLE DOWN AND, CHECK IT OUT, THIS
ACTUALLY PUSHES THE COASTLINE OUT QUITE A BIT,
BECAUSE IT PREVENTS DIRT AND STUFF FROM
GETTING WASHED AWAY. YEAH, SO THIS IS
ALL KIND OF COOL, I MEAN, THEY KEEP
THE LAND IN PLACE, PRETTY NEAT, BUT I MEAN
THAT JUST SEEMS TO COME AS A RESULT OF THE
WAY THEY’RE SHAPED. THE QUESTION IS, WHY
ARE THEY SHAPED THAT WAY IN THE FIRST PLACE? SO THIS IS ACTUALLY
A TOUGH QUESTION, BUT WE THINK
WE’VE FIGURED IT OUT. SO, LET’S GIVE IT A SHOT. ALRIGHT, STRAP
ON THOSE GOGGLES, LET’S DO THIS. KIRBY: CASEY SCIENCE,
TAKE 4, ROLLING. CHARLIE: COOL, COOL, COOL,
SO WHY ARE RED MANGROVES SHAPED SO WEIRD? WELL, THIS IS WHY, BECAUSE
TREES NEED OXYGEN TO SURVIVE. WHICH IS LITTLE
COUNTERINTUITIVE RIGHT, BECAUSE EVERYONE KNOWS
TREES RELEASE OXYGEN AS A RESULT OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS? THAT’S TRUE, BUT THEY DO
USE A LITTLE BIT OF OXYGEN, TOO FOR THE SAME
REASONS THAT WE DO, IT’S CALLED RESPIRATION,
OR BASICALLY THE PROCESS OF BURNING FUEL OR ENERGY. IT LOOKS LIKE THIS: SO, WE
HAVE ENERGY OR FUEL IN THE FORM OF CARBS AND FATS,
AND TO THAT WE ADD SOME STUFF LIKE OXYGEN, AND BOOM
THAT’S WHEN THE MAGIC HAPPENS, WE BURN THAT ENERGY
FUEL TO RUN OUR BODIES. SO, PLANTS DO THIS
PRETTY MUCH IN THE SAME WAY. AND IN CELLS THAT
PERFORM PHOTOSYNTHESIS, LIKE IN THE
LEAVES AND BRANCHES, IT’S NO REAL PROBLEM AT ALL,
BECAUSE THE OXYGEN THEY MAKE ALLOWS THEM TO
BURN THAT ENERGY FUEL. BUT WHAT ABOUT IN
THE CELLS THAT DON’T PERFORM PHOTOSYNTHESIS? LIKE CELLS IN THE ROOTS? THEY CAN’T MAKE
OXYGEN DOWN THERE, SO WHAT HAPPENS? HOW DO THEY
USE UP ENERGY? WELL, MOST TREES GET A
BIT OF OXYGEN FROM THE TINY BIT OF AIR THAT
EXISTS IN THE DIRT! THEY JUST SOAK IT RIGHT UP. SO, BOOM, RESPIRATION
CAN HAPPEN DOWN THERE WITHOUT ANY ISSUES. BUT, MANGROVES CAN’T DO THIS
BECAUSE THEY LIVE IN WATER. WHICH ACTUALLY KIND OF
PRESENTS A MAJOR PROBLEM, BECAUSE IT’S SUPER
HARD TO GET OXYGEN WHEN YOU’RE UNDER WATER. WHICH IS TOUGH
BECAUSE, REMEMBER, TREES NEED OXYGEN. SO LET’S PRETEND THAT OUR
LITTLE TREE HERE IS GROWING IN SOME WATER. SINCE THE SOIL IS
COMPLETELY SUBMERGED, THERE’S NO AIR DOWN THERE. YOU KNOW HOW YOU OR I
CAN’T BREATHE UNDER WATER, WELL NEITHER CAN ROOTS. THEY CAN’T GET THE
OXYGEN THEY NEED, THEY CAN’T USE UP ENERGY FUEL, RESPIRATION LIKE
STRAIGHT UP DOESN’T HAPPEN, THE ROOTS DIE, THE
WHOLE TREE’S DEAD, AND EVERYTHING IS JUST
COMPLETELY HORRIBLE. UNLESS, YOU HAVE PROP ROOTS. OH, MAN, PROP ROOTS,
MAJOR GAME CHANGER, TURNING EVERYTHING
AROUND FOR THE RED MANGROVES. SO WE NEED TO
GET OXYGEN TO THOSE UNDERWATER ROOTS SOMEHOW. THE PROP ROOTS STRETCH ALL
THE WAY ABOVE THE WATER LINE, WHERE THEY CAN
GET TO THAT OXYGEN. SO, PROP ROOT KIND
OF ACT LIKE A SNORKEL. PROVIDING OXYGEN TO
THE PARTS OF THE PLANT THAT ARE UNDERWATER. THEY SOAK UP
OXYGEN ABOVE THE WATER, AND TRANSPORT IT DOWN TO
THE ROOTS BELOW THE WATER. YEAH, RIGHT? THAT’S EXACTLY WHAT
WE’RE LOOKING FOR! SO, NOW ALL THAT ENERGY FUEL
CAN BE ADDED TO THAT OXYGEN, LET CHEMISTRY DO
ITS THING, YOU KNOW, A LITTLE REACTION HERE, A
LITTLE REACTION THERE AND, WE’RE BURNING THAT
ENERGY FUEL NO PROBLEM. SO, BREAKING IT
DOWN SUPER SIMPLY. ROOTS NEED OXYGEN. ROOTS IN WATER
CAN’T GET OXYGEN. PROP ROOTS SUPPLY
OXYGEN TO UNDERWATER ROOTS. BOOM, DONE, THAT’S EASY. SO ALL OF THIS IS PRETTY NEAT. BUT WE CAN’T TALK ABOUT
MANGROVES WITHOUT MENTIONING THE COOLEST PLANT TRAIT
PROBABLY/MOST DEFINITELY EVER. THE MOST AMAZING THING
ABOUT MANGROVES IS THE WAY THAT THEY MAKE
MORE MANGROVES. ONE WORD, VIVIPARY! VIVIPARY, HOW MANGROVES
MAKE MORE MANGROVES. THIS IS GOING TO
BLOW YOUR MIND. BUT FIRST, LET’S THINK
ABOUT THE WAY THAT MOST TREES MAKE MORE TREES. ALRIGHT, SO MOST
TREES DEVELOP SEEDS, DROP THEM TO THE GROUND,
AND THEN THOSE SEED START GROWING ONLY AFTER
THEY’RE AWAY FROM THE TREE. YEAH THAT MAKE
SENSE, TREES MAKE SEEDS, THEN THEY DROP
THEM TO THE GROUND, AND THEN THOSE SEEDS GROW. SEEMS PRETTY STRAIGHT FORWARD. LIKE AN OAK TREE,
MAKES ACORNS, THAT FALL TO THE GROUND,
AND THEN THEY GROW IN THE DIRT. THAT’S HOW THEY
MAKE MORE OAK TREES. BUT, TO MAKE MORE MANGROVES,
MANGROVES DO SOMETHING THAT’S JUST A LITTLE DIFFERENT. IT’S CALLED, VIVIPARY. THEIR SEEDS GERMINATE AND
START GROWING BEFORE THEY’VE EVEN FALLEN OFF THE TREE. SO, THIS IS WHAT
MANGROVE SEED PODS LOOK LIKE. YOU CAN SEE THEY’RE
STILL ON THE MANGROVE TREE, BUT THEY’VE
ALREADY STARTED GROWING, THEY HAVE LITTLE LEAVES
ON THE TOP AND ON THE BOTTOM THEY HAVE THESE TINY,
LITTLE, TINY ROOTS! SO, HERE’S THE BASIC JOURNEY
OF A MANGROVE SEED POD. IF WE ZOOM IN ON THIS
MANGROVE A BIT WE CAN SEE THAT IT HAS
SEED PODS ALREADY! SWEET! AND LOOK THEY HAVE ROOTS TOO! AWESOME. THEY’RE ALIVE AND
GROWING ALREADY! EVENTUALLY, THEY’LL FALL
OFF THE TREE INTO THE WATER, WHERE THEY’LL FLOAT
DOWNSTREAM A BIT UNTIL THEY HIT A NICE PIECE OF SOIL
AND ANCHOR THEMSELVES THERE WITH THEIR
ALREADY EXISTING ROOTS, THEN THEY’LL KEEP GROWING. SO, IT’S ALMOST LIKE THEY
HAD A HEAD START A LITTLE. NOT SURE ABOUT YOU GUYS,
BUT THIS KIND OF BLEW MY MIND. JUST SIT BACK AND
THINK ABOUT THAT FOR A BIT, THIS IS BASICALLY THE PLANT
EQUIVALENT OF LIVE BIRTH. THE SEEDS GERMINATE
AND DEVELOP ROOTS BEFORE THEY EVEN LEAVE THE TREE. CHARLIE’S GETTING
PRETTY HYPED UP, SO IS OUR SCIENTIST. WE’RE PRETTY INTO
MANGROVES OVER HERE. SO, BOOM. VIVIPARY, LIVE TREE BIRTH,
MANGROVES, HAMMERS, KIRBY, SKETCHY PARK
SIGNS, CANOEING, AWESOME.[FIREWORKS].

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