Generation Ships

Generation Ships

Historian Arnold Toynbee once said Civilization
is a movement, and not a condition, a voyage and not a harbor. When it comes to civilizations on century
long interstellar voyages, this is very true indeed. So today we will be beginning our look at
generation ships and how they might help us colonize the galaxy. We have four episodes planned for that over
the next few months and today we will begin with the basics, including examining why you
would use this approach and reviewing what the other options are. The origin of the Generation Ship concept
comes from an essay published 90 years ago by J.D. Bernal, also known for the Bernal
Sphere, one of the space habitats we discuss here a lot though not as much as the O’Neill
Cylinder. At the time of its writing, science fiction
was really just beginning to bloom as a genre. Of the Big Three: Isaac Asimov, Robert Heinlein,
and Arthur C. Clarke, none of them would publish a story for over a decade yet. Asimov and Heinlein very rightly were in our
first year of SFIA Books of the Month, sponsored by Audible, and as we close out that first
year with our twelfth winner, it is very appropriate that be Arthur C. Clarke’s 1973 novel, Rendezvous
with Rama, which tells the tale of mankind’s encounter with an alien Generation Ship. You can pick up a free copy of “Rendezvous
with Rama” and also get a 30-day trial of Audible, just use my link,
or text Isaac to 500-500. Generation ships, also known as Interstellar
Arks, work on the principle that the stars are so far apart that you could never reach
them in a single lifetime, and back in 1929 when Bernal wrote his essay, we did not have
any spaceflight, and only very simple rockets and equations for them. That essay, “The World, the Flesh & the
Devil”, which I’ll link below, is ironically one I’d never read till around a year ago,
but channel regulars will notice a lot of familiar concepts in their earlier stages
there, complete with discussion of sailing into deep space using solar sails. In the absence of powerful lasers or atomic
rockets, any such ship, destined for even the nearest stars, would take a near eternity
to arrive. A ship moving at just 1% of 1% of light speed
would take 40,000 years to reach the nearest star and that’s the kind of speeds modern
spacecraft tend to achieve and what the rocket equation, already known in Bernal’s era,
would suggest as a maximum limit at the time. Right from the start we knew about the major
problems. Such a ship was in no way possible at that
time, 3 years before we discovered the neutron and began considering atomic energy as a power
source, there was simply no way such a ship could survive the journey with an intact biosphere. No chemical fuel could keep plants lit and
habitats warm for those immense journeys. To add to that, you need a very large ship
to maintain any diverse ecology for future colonization and to support enough people
that they didn’t all start growing third arms from inbreeding. Many solutions were proposed for this, some
effectively abandoning the generation ship notion entirely, but this is when the seed
was planted. That of course was the purpose, to colonize
and seed other planets. As to the why, I think most folks know the
obvious ones already, they range from not wanting all of humanity’s eggs in one basket
to just an extension of our desire to wander and explore, the pioneering spirit. These all sound good, but there’s a big
difference between traveling around the galaxy at warp speed and voluntarily getting on a
ship that will be the final resting place for you and your next dozen or more generations
of descendants. These are trips lasting so long that even
if you are the hundredth such ship to launch you still won’t have heard back from the
first one yet to know if they succeeded or died horribly. So, while it gave us a potential pathway to
the stars, it didn’t seem likely anyone would choose to follow it. Indeed, this was the obvious solution to the
Fermi Paradox back when Enrico Fermi first suggested it, and he didn’t regard it as
a paradox at the time. Such ships simply were not realistic at that
time, Fermi died in 1954, quite some time still before we even went to orbit, let alone
our own moon. So while a species might colonize its own
solar system, the idea of getting to others seemed like something limited to science fiction. Yet it got discussed a lot in science fiction
and with many serious and science-based solutions to the various problems. Many of those, again, didn’t involve generation
ships at all. We discussed the five major types of interstellar
colonization vessels way back at the end of season 1, and added a sixth variation the
following year. In order, those were Methuselah Ships, Sleeper
Ships, Generation Ships, Seed Ships, and Gardener Ships. We’ll be adding some variations to those
as we move through this series and talking about when or if each of these options, or
a combination, will be most effective. We will also be asking ourselves, next episode,
if a lone ship is really a good idea, or if you should be employing a fleet, and if so,
should that be a fleet moving together or strung out in a long line, with a vanguard
arriving first followed by waves of vessels. But on a long voyage through deep space, with
new generations being born, you no longer have volunteers and many skill sets might
be lost. Initially that was a bigger concern. Remember, Bernal’s essay predates any electronic
computers. Even once we had them, for most of the 90
years since Bernal’s essay, computer hard drives were little better than books at data
storage, either in terms of data density or ability to resist damage. So it was thought that generation ships would
have had to carry real books. But even with modern data storage allowing
us to carry the sum of all human knowledge in one’s pocket, skills with no purpose
can get forgotten and are hard to relearn just from records. There’s not much call for a geologist on a
space ark after all. Yet with each new advance in technology, new
approaches to making generation ships viable or offering an alternative have arisen. So let’s review those basic designs and
how they vary from a Generation Ship and why. Each has its strengths and weaknesses and
seeks to address some problem of the basic generation ship or exploit some new technology
that’s been discovered or proposed since the original concept. The first, the Methuselah ship, approaches
it from the standpoint of having life-extension technology. It doesn’t get around the long time the
crew must endure, but it does get around the problem of generations. The people who get on board such a ship can
be assumed to be volunteers, and ones with a clear idea what they need to do, and the
skills and technology for it. Methuselah ships get around the problem of
the crew being unwilling, after the first generation, or unskilled, because the first
generation is still around, indeed there may not be any future generations until they arrive. With limited resources on a small ship, breeding
more folks on the flight is maybe not a good idea, but if you did, those additional folks
or replacements would still have living ancestors who raised them and know what needs doing,
all the way till the final destination. Additionally, a Methuselah Ship implies a
level of medical or nanotechnology that can help deal with concerns about long term space
voyages, both the hazards of space travel and the genetic and ecological issues. Such folks are presumably either genetic wizards
or masters of cybernetics and nanotech after all. Our next type was the Sleeper Ship, which
is poorly named in some respects, since you are dead not asleep, so tomb ship might be
more apt, but Sleeper Ship still conveys the intent. Everybody gets frozen, unless you’ve got
some magical stasis technology, and thawed out on arrival. Or almost everybody does, a ship needing a
crew or maintenance in flight might keep to a generation ship approach for a small crew
with a vast number of frozen colonists. Alternatively they might wake pilots and maintenance
personnel for a few years each, either waking the whole team for a few weeks to assess the
current state of the mission and do some repairs, then freezing them again for a few years before
waking them again, or keep shifts, where a thousand year journey might have a hundred
crew teams, each thawed out for a decade before going back to sleep. Animals and plants for terraforming are kept
on ice the whole mission. In this way, the Sleeper Ship avoids both
unwilling passengers born during the flight, and loss of skills in future generations. This seems ideal but for two problems. First and most obviously, it has been over
half a century since the first person was cryo-preserved, and we still lack the technology
to thaw out and re-animate humans. Incidentally the first was Professor James
Bedford in 1967, not Walt Disney who was never frozen, but was cremated, and nobody’s really
sure how that rumor started. As I mentioned back in Interstellar Colonization,
the technology to resurrect people long frozen is probably the same as to keep them alive
without aging, since it requires massive cell repair, so if you can do a sleeper ship, you
can do a Methuselah Ship. This does not mean you wouldn’t do a sleeper
ship though, as keeping a ship and its passengers alive for the whole trip is demanding in resources
and energy, whereas keeping people frozen in interstellar space is rather easy, and
such a trip is also presumably fairly boring too. However, the second problem with cryo is that
things which are frozen are not in a magic bubble in which time does not pass. Even ignoring the damage done while freezing,
decay still happens. What’s more, no matter how cold you make
someone, it will have no effect on atomic decay. Many of the substances in our bodies are radioactive,
particularly Potassium-40, hence the overblown concerns about banana radiation. I’ve seen some varying figures for the total
doses of radiation we get just from our bodies, not external background radiation, but I’ll
go with the 0.3 milliSieverts per year from the Health Physics Society, and its only about
a tenth of the total most of us get from background radiation overall. You’d need about 10,000 times that to get
a lethal dose. However, if you’re frozen, isotope decay
is still occurring, and without the usual repair mechanisms to keep things in check. Using the HPS data, if you freeze someone
for 10,000 years they’d get a lethal dose. Just from the various radioactive materials
in our own bodies. So there are limits as to how long you can
keep people frozen, unless you are reviving them periodically to fix that damage, assuming
you even can. Indeed, space is not exactly known for its
lack of radiation either, so your timeline is a lot shorter unless you are very well-shielded. To keep people frozen longer, you either need
to be able to repair them with nanotechnology while frozen, which might be rather difficult
considering nanotech isn’t immune to the cold either, or again you have to wake them
up and let repairs occur. Which is okay if you are cycling personnel
to run and repair the ship, just waking folks every few centuries to do a couple years of
work and heal up before being frozen again. No indefinite frozen voyages though, freeze
folks for a few millions years of travel to another galaxy and they’ll all wake up thoroughly
dead. Our third type, the classic generation ship,
we’ll skip for now. Type 4, the Seed Ship, essentially is a robot
that arrives in a system and terraforms a planet. It can be used as a speedy vanguard to ships
with colonists arriving later or in more high-tech forms, and could potentially grow everything
and everyone there. Depending on your technology or inclination,
it might simply prepare the location for more thorough terraforming, or just growing plants
and insects, or even animals, or people it raises and teaches. Having a vanguard is an example of why you
might use a fleet, arriving in bits and pieces, and it is likely that even single colony ships
would at least send fast probes ahead to do detailed flybys of various planets and to
confirm the target is ideal for colonization or look at some neighboring ones the ship
could divert to if it wasn’t or as emergency alternatives. However a seed ship could potentially grow
people without minds, be that cloned but mindless bodies or androids, into which colonists’
minds could be uploaded. And this brings us to our fifth one, the Data
Ship, which is essentially abandoning biology entirely in favor of simply bringing self-replicating
machines and data, including digital copies of minds. These two types, Seed Ships and Data Ships,
have merged a bit as concepts as technology improved, because a Seed Ship planning to
grow people or build androids is essentially a data ship, and more to the point, information
can be sent at light speed, so neither needs to carry much data. A tight-beam, high bandwidth laser can be
shot at the destination to coincide with when the ship is expected to have arrived and gotten
the basic colony apparatus in place. Thus getting around some of the concerns with
data storage for very long flights or everything being very out of date when it gets there. Moreover, DNA can be stored digitally and
printed, so a Seed Ship need not carry frozen genetic samples along on its voyage. Of course, these are very tiny and fast approaches,
and cheap too. As we’ll see as we explore generation ships,
these are huge vessels, whereas a data ship or seed ship is much smaller. Indeed, a data ship potentially might be as
small as a model ship someone would keep on their shelf or mantle. Data can be stored very densely, even when
you are including many redundant copies to deal with data decay or damage, and again,
a tight beam aimed to arrive from home about when the ship would be in place can get rid
of any non-essential data that isn’t needed for the trip or initial setup. Either version might begin not by terraforming
a planet but by building a giant receiver dish and data storage banks instead. Indeed, the data ship may be more akin to
a Von Neumann probe, only instead of building a copy of itself, it builds the needed infrastructure
and then builds the colony. It’s tempting to think the ship’s planetary
probes can go faster because they’re smaller, but that’s flawed reasoning. The energy required to achieve a certain speed
scales linearly to mass, so a bigger ship with a proportionally bigger engine and fuel
tank can get going just as fast. The real reason your probes can travel ahead
faster is because they don’t have to slow down, arrive safely, or return to you. While your colony ships need to use fuel to
slow down as they near their destination system, probes can use all their fuel accelerating,
do their job of gathering data to send back, and shoot through into space. Though they might save a little for a course
correction to check out alternate targets further ahead your ship could likewise detour
to, waste not, want not. They take way less total mass to build and
fuel of course, allowing you to build hundreds for every star in the galaxy out of a single
modest asteroid, but they rely on a level of smart automation to manufacture that makes
this redundant too. A gigaton space ark might weigh as much as
a trillion tiny data ships, but the Asteroid Belt, our topic for last week, masses about
3 billion Gigatons, enough for 3 billion such ships, and our smallest planet, Mercury, has
enough for 300 billion ships, enough for every star system in our galaxy. So mass is irrelevant in this context, and
if you’ve got tiny ships that can colonize whole solar systems, then you can just as
easily have them rip apart a few large asteroids or moons in our solar system to make a ton
of giant ships instead. You also have no need to send a ship to each
star, as the first wave can arrive at the nearest few hundred systems and build more
of any type, such as data or seed ship, it just builds copies of itself to go to other
systems further out before getting to work on terraforming a planet. Generation ships can do this too, but it’s
assumed to be a lot slower as they presumably need centuries if not millennia of settling
their first system before they’d have the time or desire to send out the next wave. Fundamentally Generation Ships are self-replicating
machines, just as humans are, its just that neither requires tons of technology we don’t
have yet, even on the drawing board. This is where our last ship type, the Gardener
Ship, comes in. In many ways it is just a normal Generation
Ship incorporating some of the other concepts. We discussed this in the Life in a Space Colony
series, but it’s basically on a long voyage with everyone awake, and with the ability
to manufacture goods en route, rather than bringing everything from home. Suddenly your generation ship is not a one-time
use vessel. There’s no reason that they can’t be breeding
up their numbers during the voyage, indeed we assumed life-extension technology was available
to it and so they’ve got a rising population if they have any kids at all, unlike a generation
ship which can simply limit breeding to replacement levels. They arrive at a system, leave some of their
people there while helping the colony get started, and fly off with a full fuel tank
and raw materials sourced from that star system. During the voyage they can turn those raw
materials into colonial equipment and the crew can breed new colonists. Since the ship needs to be able to repair
every component of the vessel, they can, much like the self-replicators of the data and
seed ship versions, actually even spawn new ships or sub-divide their ship into two ships
every so often, which will head off to separate destinations. With this, you can build rather huge generation
ships because you only need a few hundred to be built back here in the Solar System
to get the whole galaxy settled quite quickly. They won’t get it done quite as quick as
a self-replicating probe will, but they won’t be much slower either. They move at the same speed and mostly just
stop for longer, but on century long journeys between each stop, little difference is made
by them stopping for a few years compared to the probe stopping for a few hours, or
that the probe can probably decelerate and accelerate quicker. So those are the main alternatives to the
classic generation ship. However a lot depends on what we mean by classic
generation ship. The original versions tended to assume you
needed millennia just to get to the nearest solar system. We already have designs for ships using current
tech we can build right now, albeit for costs that would bankrupt nations, that could get
to our nearest neighbors in centuries or even decades. We’ll talk about those designs more next
time, but they change the dynamics a lot. How fast a ship can go, how long you can keep
people and equipment alive and functioning, and how quickly you can build en route or
at your destination all heavily influence how you colonize. For instance, with several of these designs
there’s no need or point to Earth sending more than a small handful of ships out, whereas
with classic generation ships you want to send them as far as you can because your own
colonies will be a long time growing before they send their own. And you can always get a ship from Earth to
a destination faster by sending it directly, rather than by having it zigzag a bit and
stopping to do stuff, refueling or replicating, and speeding back up again. We also have other advantages that let us
make colony ships smaller, and thus let you build more of them. For instance the big concern originally was
that such a ship needed to be big enough to support a genetically diverse ecosystem that
wouldn’t bottleneck either. For its human crew we tended to assume a need
for thousands of colonists to avoid that. However, in the first place, we could bring
along huge quantities of frozen fertilized embryos for implantation, we already have
that technology. In the second place, we will most likely have
the tech to fix genetic issues that crop up from breeding too closely long before we get
our first space ark built. This doesn’t mean you don’t need or want
a large ship with a large ecology on it, and we’ll discuss the challenges and solutions
of that more in the third episode in this series, Exporting Earth. Keep in mind, though, that even if you’re
bringing only two of every kind, elephants take up a lot of room. The picture we begin to see emerge though
is that a realistic generation ship is going to include facets of each of those other variations. It is going to carry large freezer banks,
even if you can’t revive frozen people. It is going to have self-replicating technology
on it, even if it’s in the more conventional sense of just having enough factory and industry
to make any given object from raw materials obtained on arrival. It is likely to employ a vanguard, even if
that’s just fast flyby probes to take readings of the system before you arrive or scout ahead
to help the ship avoid dangerous interstellar space junk. It is likely to have huge databanks containing
all our art and science and history, and for that matter, digital copies of DNA so they
can fall back on those if frozen supplies are damaged or can’t store long enough. It isn’t likely to make building a big receiver
dish its first project on arrival, but only because it will likely already have one so
it can be receiving data from home the whole time. News, technological breakthroughs, new TV
and books, and likely intermittent repeats of all essential knowledge in case something
vital is lost. Another thing we’ll explore more in the
fourth episode is that your colony effort is not just limited to the folks on the ship
even after it launches, someone has to keep sending them new info from back home for instance. That episode, the Million Year Ark, will focus
more on long terms changes of mission and culture on ships, where we’ll try to tackle
the challenge of keeping a generation ship intact and on-mission for a million years. Back home though, you’ve got the same problems. You want to make sure your ship isn’t reliant
on information from home but you want to have that option, so it makes sense to invest some
of your colony-ship building funds into creating a trust or foundation that will keep rounding
up data and sending it to you. That’s not an easy thing, considering how
few organizations survive for centuries and far fewer of those stay on their original
mission. Just as an example, a trust set up in the
1500s to ensure funding for colonizing the Americas would probably have had a department
dedicated to the shipment home of plundered goods and slaves, and the exporting of missionaries
and possibly soldiers to encourage those missionaries get listened to. I think we can assume, if they had existed
then, sometime in the last century or two there’d have been some major overhauls to
that foundation. You want that support from home, and you want
to pack all the gear you need, not raw materials, but fundamentally you need such a ship to
be as self-contained as possible, able to survive without info from home and build what
it needs for the journey. Moreover, you need to make sure it can recycle
everything very efficiently and doesn’t leak. This is a problem, because everything does
leak. You take hydrogen for instance, the preferred
propellant for ships and fuel too if you’ve got fusion. Its fine for getting up to speed but hydrogen
is so tiny it tends to escape through materials, much as a chicken wire mesh can keep in a
chicken but not an ant. Think of your party balloons and how they
lose their buoyancy over just a few hours. This is a bit of problem if all your supplies
of fuel to slow down evaporate out of the ship before you arrive. And we’ve got the same issue with things
like air and water reserves. Bigger, thicker ships and new and better materials
can help with these problems, as can innovations in improved recycling efficiency, but are
unlikely to eliminate them entirely. One of the solutions for this, without giving
too many spoilers for our book of the month, Rendezvous with Rama, is to essentially use
a sleeper ship on a bit of a grand scale. You send out a giant ship that can support
a whole ecology, but keep it all frozen or in hibernation. The book may be 45 years old at this point,
but still discusses a lot of the issues with Generation Ships and space colonization in
general, and like most of Clarke’s work, it’s very hard science fiction. Since it is on the older side and we will
be focusing in this series on methods suggested with newer technology, you can read that to
get a fair idea of a lot of the problems envisioned for generation ships that we’ll be addressing
in the rest of this series. As books go, it’s a classic, and it features
one of the classic tropes of science fiction. A giant object is spotted entering the system,
identified as not being natural, and the brave explorers set off to explore it and unlock
its mysteries. Clarke writes them well, as the expedition
members act like skilled adults not blundering around stupidly making crazy decisions. That object, Rama, is a giant cylinder 20
kilometers wide and 54 long, a good deal bigger than the behemoth O’Neill Cylinders we discussed
recently, and far larger than the ships usually envisioned for space travel, and is spotted
entering the solar system at over 100,000 kilometers per hour, which while fast is still
only 1% of 1% of light speed, meaning that a journey to even the nearest star would take
it many tens of thousands of years. While we will contemplate journeys of that
duration and even longer in this series, we will be trying to show how you can do them
far faster with more advanced technology. Clarke shows us how it might be done with
the technology they had back when he wrote it, or at least technology comfortably on
the horizon. It’s a great book and considered one of
the best by one of sci-fi’s legendary authors, and you can get a free copy today of Rendezvous
with Rama, just use my link in this episode’s description, or text Isaac
to 500-500 to get a free book and 30 day free trial, and that book is yours to keep, whether
you stay on with Audible or not. Also, for a limited time, Amazon Prime members
can get the first three months of Audible for the price of one, and you can enjoy all
your fun outdoor summer activities while listening to your favorite books. All right, as mentioned our next episode in
the series will focus more on the mechanics of such ships and factors like flight time
and propulsion, fleets of colony ships versus lone ships, and more, in Exodus Fleet. But before then, we will look at how a galaxy
settled by humanity might look after a while, when we join up again with John Michael Godier
next week for a two-part episode exploring what a colonized galaxy will look like. For alerts when those episodes come out, make
sure to subscribe to the channel, and if you enjoyed this episode, hit the like button
and share it with others. And if you’d like to share your ideas on
this concept with others who share your interests, you can join in the discussion over at our
Facebook and Reddit Groups, or our Discord Server, Science and Futurism with Isaac Arthur. Until next time, this is Isaac Arthur, saying thanks for watching and have a great week!

100 thoughts on “Generation Ships

  • July 17, 2018 at 9:14 pm

    Nice music choice there with The Theory of Everything =)

  • July 17, 2018 at 11:42 pm

    Sort of reminds me of movie Pandora keep up awsome videos isaic

  • July 18, 2018 at 2:55 pm

    Ah damnit it actually just hit me – generation ships = Noah's ark ~=That dude, Jonah (?) who lived in a whale – of course will be interpreted (if not already) as prophecies of the bible by one or more of the cults. "Don't be silly no one actually thought someone lived in a whale – it was a metaphor for spaceship". Ah damnit that's most probably why the Mormons were the ones building the generation ship (have not read the series:). Well, if it finally hit me, it's not far from the lowest common denominator – brace yourself, the new wave of woo is coming 🙂

  • July 18, 2018 at 7:40 pm

    Wtf is wrong with his speech? "Forst porson" what? Lean english before you make a vid.

  • July 19, 2018 at 12:37 am

    Yay! Cody on 6:44!

  • July 19, 2018 at 1:54 am

    Awesome channel, it always makes me think for days, although with all the new manned quadrocopters these days would it be possible to do a deep dive on possible future flying machines?

  • July 19, 2018 at 2:46 am

    Ahh, who could forget our heros Nicole Des Jardins and Richard Wakefield in Clarke's Rama series.
    My favorite sci-fi books.

  • July 19, 2018 at 3:10 am

    Love your stuff man.

  • July 19, 2018 at 5:36 am

    I read Clarke's book as a teenager in the 80s. Fantastic.

  • July 19, 2018 at 10:07 am

    Is there enough mass in all the asteroids in the asteroid belt to create a new planet? If you could somehow conglomerate them together, would a planetary core form, similar to Earth's? Is the planetary core just a matter of substance plus pressure, or is there more going on there? If we could make a rocky planetoid with magnetoshpere, could it then hold water introduced via comets etc? Have followed this channel for sometime, love it. Thank you for your work

  • July 19, 2018 at 3:37 pm

    I'm a fan of generation ships capable of asteroid mining and space dust collection. I don't know the composition of small space debris and dust but I assume it would include a bit of everything in one form or another, which should hopefully mitigate any small losses over time.

  • July 20, 2018 at 11:00 am

    You are a legendary sci-fi Arthur.

  • July 21, 2018 at 10:35 pm

    Isaaawwwc awwwwthhuwwww!!!
    Great video!!
    Looking forward to hearing about the propulsion systems you mentioned. The ones that can get large ships with humans to nearby star systems in 100 years or less.

  • July 22, 2018 at 3:28 am

    DON’T USE ACRONYMS WITHOUT EXPLAINING WHAT THEY STAND FOR! And don’t assume that “everyone knows” what common or everydat ones stand for…

  • July 22, 2018 at 6:28 pm

    I take issue with your "dead not asleep" comment. I agree "sleep" is the wrong word, in the same way that people in most types of comas are not sleeping, but dead is no more technically accurate. Many accepted definitions of death over the years have included the word "permanent", or a synonym, and when talking about the flatworms that can be dehydrated and rehydrated we do not refer to them as dead when in the dehydrated state.

  • July 24, 2018 at 7:34 am

    So a future society is thought to solve the problem of antimatter or fusion starship engines but can't figure out how to turn off human aging? Seriously? I will say that in the 1960s, before human genetics were known, before we knew aging was almost certainly something that can be hacked, it might have seemed reasonable that aging would be a harder problem to solve than starship engines.

  • July 24, 2018 at 12:31 pm

    Who made the animations of the small, fast ship, that pans out to a huge fleet?

  • July 24, 2018 at 2:20 pm

    I just finished reading "Rendezvous with Rama". I feel bamboozled by it's lack of ending. Also, how do you get "generation ship" out of it?

  • July 24, 2018 at 4:38 pm

    The first ship to depart would never be the first to arrive. Advances in technology would ensure you would be overtaken within a lifetime or so.

  • July 25, 2018 at 10:04 pm

    How would they get the raw materials to manufacture the new tech when it arrives while still travelling to said destination you can only bring a limited amount with you and theres also a limited amount of recycling you can do. I get melting down any old, obsolete or broken tech to recycle and re-use. And I know absolute efficiency is practically a prerequisite of any spaceflight but your still going to get to a point where you simply can't recycle the metals because theres nothing to do so with. And you'll quickly run out of stored raw material. Your still in flight at relativistic speed so how do you get more materials?

  • July 26, 2018 at 4:14 am

    10,000 years on ice and dead from radiation when thawed – that neatly explains the ancients dropping dead when woken in Star Gate Atlantis

  • July 26, 2018 at 4:35 am

    It is always fun to find such ships in Elite Dangerous.
    Imagine that if you going with 10% of the speed of light and sending small probes with nuclear warheads to destroy potentional asteroids. Then a passive not much an explorer aliens finds that offensive…..

  • July 26, 2018 at 5:02 am

    I would bet that most of the crossings between stars will be done by "dwellers between stars" who don't even really care what star they're closest to. Maybe the new habitat they've just founded is technically in orbit around some star or other, or maybe not; they don't really care as long as it takes them places where there are useful resources: rogue planets, ejected objects, plutinos, oort cloud objects, brown dwarfs …. there is a hell of a lot of real estate out there when you quit caring about being close to stars.

  • July 26, 2018 at 7:21 pm

    You know, at this point in our technological development, we as a civilization should nail down some of these concepts when discussing artificial lifeforms. Just like we did with finally defining what a "planet" was, we should do so for "robots" and "androids".
    Robots are mechanical objects that do multiple specific tasks on their own. A wheel, lever or pulley is NOT a robot, but a machine none-the-less. Actual robots should range from vehicle manufacturing robots to planetary rovers, to roombas.
    Androids should be defined as mechanical objects that not only mimic functions that humans do, but also mimic specific features including, by and large, the shape of a human, at least in that they should have a head (primary sensor, possible control) appendage, arm appendages (for work/fine tasks) and leg (mobility) appendages. For this definition, I wouldn't accept a humanoid robot with head, 2 plus arms and wheels or tracks though. The 5 main appendage and plan would have to be in effect.
    Now, something like a Replicant, a BIO-mechanical object that mimics functions, shape and functions but using primarily organic materials arranged in organs or humanoid structures and is even more lifelike should be a separate definition. This should be an entity that is not fabricated whole cloth, that is, fertilized, incubated and matured over a human lifetime time scale. That would be a Clone IMHO. No a replicant would be, just as in "Blade Runner" a bio-mechanical entity, stitched together using specifically grown parts and being, other than upon very close, microscopic or genetic inspection, identical to a human. Frankenstein's monster would not fit this description as it used reanimated dead parts stitched together.
    So how this systematic classification would work as I see it would be:
    USS Enterprise, Millenium Falcon = machine
    Nightrider's KITT, Elon Musk's driverless cars or self driving APC's, Terminator T1 Hunter Killers or Arial Hunter Killers = robots
    Star Wars's Wed Tredwell, Power droid and R2D2 = robots
    Star Trek's Data, Terminator endoskeletons, C3PO, Asimov's Daneel Olivaw, I Robot's NS-4's or NS-5's = Androids
    Philip K Dick's Roy Batty = Replicant
    Mary Shelley's Frankenstein's monster = ?

  • July 27, 2018 at 11:49 am

    SPOILER ALERT: Rama technically did NOT freeze any beings. All biobots were reclaimed in the Sea, and then Sea with all components were frozen. Then new ones were created from scratch. Basically, the only trick in hard-sf part was avoiding storage deterioration (though we already have ones esitmated to last billions of years!) and vaccum welding. And btw: entire Rama cycle is 1+3 and kind of… well…. reminding three, are.. different.

  • July 27, 2018 at 3:39 pm

    Couldn't nanobots help repair the damage to the cells by radiation while people are in a deep freeze?

  • July 27, 2018 at 7:01 pm

    You are so damn good. Thanks for everything you have done. You have made my decade, let alone my day.

  • July 27, 2018 at 7:05 pm

    Nice episode isaac, one of my favorite concepts in science fiction.

  • July 27, 2018 at 10:59 pm

    Just a small correction. The speeds you listed for Rama are not entirely correct. It was slowing down as it was approaching the sun and it is stipulated in the book that it took the approach of accelerating rapidly up to speed and then coasting or decelerating at the halfway mark before entering a new system. It might also be worth mentioning that while the book never revealed the exact nature of the drive system it was capable of either manipulating it's gravitational field in relation to the sun or producing one of it's own seemingly without mechanical parts. Hence in contrast to a typical generation ship as discussed by human beings it's clear that the Ramans have technology and an understanding of the universe we still lack as the means by which gravitational force is conveyed still eludes us although the effect is very well understood. Full disclosure i have just read the first book so some of this may have been clarified in the second and third book although I have heard from some people that if you liked the exploration element and mystique of the Ramans from the first book one might want to shy away from the sequals.

  • July 29, 2018 at 11:59 pm

    The planet Earth is the ultimate generation ship…traveling through space, with everything we need…endless power (for now), courtesy of the Sun…all types of protection in place…from Jupiter attracting all the random crap thrown into the solar system…to the protection around Earth from radiation, etc.

    The only problem is we don't know who is at the wheel of our journey…

  • July 30, 2018 at 12:35 pm

    Great use of Ayreon music at the end. I'm a giant fan of his!

  • July 31, 2018 at 11:13 am

    Super perfected ecological permaculture diversity,,, reruniverse cityspace living, new worlds made.
    I do get worried that I should just give up on Earth, I'm just not ready to, it's going to be bad but it doesn't have to go completely.
    I'll try to help the best I can as soon as I can check my plan in tune.
    But I'll take my loved ones and leave you all behind in the heartbeat of your flash before your eyes if you don't pull the f**** now.
    Pointless I'm just talking to myself, no not pointless. Just no point.
    I do what I want because I'm god

  • July 31, 2018 at 11:23 am

    I love this planet, a new place to live temporarily just for New Horizons experience would be wonderful as long as I can come home to Earth and swim my ocean. Adore my moon that makes my wave move rainbows to a sun that makes us grow together.
    Always trees to climb, or a bug to squish squirm squeal or fish.
    Beautiful walking, adventure in nature surrounding talking.
    The birds and the bees romancing trees berries fruit I hope you taste.
    The smell of fresh and you to live tell every breath…

  • August 2, 2018 at 2:53 pm

    Unbelievably good. New subscriber .

  • August 2, 2018 at 7:00 pm

    Is your middle name Robert?

  • August 2, 2018 at 11:24 pm

    being part of the team making first contact with an alien ship is rather smart actually. If they come in peace, BAM, you are a historical figure. If they are hostile, you'll be evaporated, and die instantly, your last thought being "Yeay, I might become a historical personality!"

  • August 3, 2018 at 12:21 am

    I just can't place the accent…. a little Afrikaaner, maybe? Great videos, by the way…. I am really enjoying your back-catalog.

  • August 3, 2018 at 12:58 am

    Closing out with Ayreon, oof.

  • August 9, 2018 at 10:03 pm

    And now imagine combination of all of this.

  • August 12, 2018 at 12:27 am

    Vr to learn skills in real life scenarios

  • August 12, 2018 at 1:13 pm


  • August 23, 2018 at 12:21 am

    Great work, but it is sad to see that you still think one can upload people into computers. You haven't studied consciousness yet.

  • August 23, 2018 at 2:49 am

    So what's so bad about 3 arms? =)

  • August 24, 2018 at 11:44 am

    Don't know if anyone has allready mentioned it, but there is an discrepancy in the closed captions at 27:39. The audio says 10,000 Km/h but the subtitles say 100,000 Km/h
    (So either the audio was wrong and the number was corrected in the sub, or the sub contains a typo)

  • September 1, 2018 at 2:57 am

    I tried to both link and text but got no joy. Did I do something wrong or is the offer no longer valid?
    Also is there a order to your shows so that I can build my knowledge in a intelligent fashion? I frequently feel like I am missing important info and you play lists is not vary helpful. I LOVE(!!!!!!!!) your channel, by the way.
    Thank you

  • September 17, 2018 at 12:54 pm

    almost 300k subs 😉 jinx

  • September 17, 2018 at 2:14 pm

    9:00 no mentioned of Mass Effect Andromeda as an example of Sleeper Ships?

  • October 4, 2018 at 3:03 pm

    This guys talking is pure hilarity

  • October 13, 2018 at 4:15 am

    Sadly, I can see generation ships being the only way to do interstellar travel

  • October 14, 2018 at 11:13 am

    What isbthe video game animation that you keep using???

  • October 18, 2018 at 7:20 am

    the book "rendevous with rama" and follow up books for it, were good reads. i read them many years back.

  • October 20, 2018 at 7:06 pm

    What is the (I'm assuming game) he uses for the guy walking around on the ship?

  • October 23, 2018 at 5:40 am

    What happens if you leave on a 1,000,000 year journey for a habitable planet and a civilization develops in those million years? Would you tell them you are coming, would you just show up or redirect to a new destination?

  • October 26, 2018 at 5:03 am

    The only activity that would keep people going is discovery. Take that activity away, and your ship and your civilization are dead (after they are debauched, of course). What would guide discovery? Discovery for its own sake? No, that is weak. You need philosophical enlightenment, and humans have not achieved it yet (enter me).

  • October 28, 2018 at 5:37 pm

    If the leaders in USA did not lie and still do, about contact from outside our planet, we would never have heard about Fermi…think about that CIA, NSA and NASA. Shame on you.

  • November 4, 2018 at 3:41 pm

    You deserve more subs.

  • November 7, 2018 at 9:14 pm

    Who here would be okay with going on a generational ship?

  • November 9, 2018 at 3:48 pm

    If you can maintain human civilisation on space habitats and generation ships, then really, people born on those ships with their comfortable man-made environments would be in no hurry to colonise lifeless planets. They could still do it, but the majority would still be living, working, vacationing and night-clubbing in space habitats. Terraforming new planets may be done by private organisations and volunteers, while other corporate bodies will see planets as only good for providing raw materials for building better artificial planets and habitats. Who wouldn't turn Mercury inside out to build a new Earth-sized planet on which to sell real estate on?

    Some interstellar communities, however, will eschew star systems to live as nomads among the stars, never settling anywhere short of setting up laser-relay or stellaser installations to externally propel their spaceship-habitats for thousands of years. Space is full of rocky debris with which they can strip down for raw materials and either expand their own vessel or manufacture new ones for offshoot communities.

  • November 13, 2018 at 2:08 am

    Even light speed is extremely slow compared to the scale of the universe.

  • November 14, 2018 at 7:44 pm

    I truly want to listen to all of this, but he sounds like Elmur Fudd lecturing on space.

  • November 16, 2018 at 2:21 pm

    Where do you purchase your marijuana and which hydroponics process or flavor do you prefer?
    I don't think humans since the industrial revolution would be capable of any of the most basic achievements beyond the one defunct Space Shuttle programs.
    They over generations have been inbreed by class, race, economic, education and materialism competition to do no more than fight, kill and debate their position over the success of the whole.
    Ants, bees, and other insects would make better candidate for million-years space travel, because they are genetically breeded without question to instinctly follow a chemical-based lifespan with precision…even at the risk of death.
    Great animations though…maybe we should recolonalize Earth by restoration, defense and innovation upgrades that will build the human capacity to "naturally" move to the moon, then further out as our capacity to think differently as a whole.
    Maybe uploaded consciousnesses into robotic or Android ship operators would be even better just for mineing operations and asteroid defence projects would in the immediate term be more long-term advantageous…the spin-offs would be equal to that of the other big-dollar space programs and more importantly humanity may learn how to clean it's room before trying to move to another clean room only to trash it too.

  • November 23, 2018 at 3:24 am

    Arthur, why are you such a skeptic about suspended animation but a fan of freezing people. You dismiss thoughts about hibernation with the vague remark that it is dangerous for chipmunks and such. Really? We can do no better? There has not been much work on this technology because there has been no need for it, but it would seem a heck of a lot easier to put someone into cold sleep then repair the damage done by freezing. That is, if there is any point to rebuilding dead people. Even if it is possible, which I doubt, why go to all that trouble? Just make new ones.

  • November 23, 2018 at 6:57 pm

    People could be forced onto the ships. They could be penial colonies. A civilization could get rid of its 'bad influences' by packing them all on a ship and sending them off.

  • December 16, 2018 at 8:13 pm

    Mr. Arthur, you make some really good points here. The knowledge drain and necessity of mainly technical expertise could prove disastrous in delivering a functional society anywhere distant. Good video of many good videos from you sir.

  • January 5, 2019 at 3:33 pm

    I dont know how some people face the truth here. The more I know about the length of our galaxies, the more it makes me afraid. What was God even trying to acheive ?

  • January 13, 2019 at 8:56 am

    Do you know you sound goo goo gaw gaw baby voice wanguage?!?

  • January 16, 2019 at 4:47 pm

    i feel like i need to give a shout-out to the FIRST "science fiction writer" of all time.
    she was an 18 year old girl. ( google ). you can also look up the first "computer programmer"
    of all time. she was also very young

  • January 18, 2019 at 10:58 pm

    The real lesson from Clarke is of course in RAMA II. A ship of fools but with a sane 'Captain'.

  • January 23, 2019 at 7:16 am

    Is there a name for this guys accent? Where is it from, if anywhere? Is it a speech impediment? Im genuinely curious.

  • January 23, 2019 at 9:16 am

    how feasible would it be to take advantage of time dilation? I know that it takes more energy to go faster as you get closer to the speed of light but how fast could we plausibly go?

  • January 27, 2019 at 10:21 am

    I know for sure none of these will happen in our lifetime or many milleniums to come

  • January 29, 2019 at 5:28 pm

    Most scifi novels about generation ships I've read are about failed missions to a distant destination. The people on board grow dissatisfied with the rules and mutiny. Or the next generation rise against their parents, etc. Maybe sleeper or seed ships are better

  • January 31, 2019 at 4:00 am

    it wouldn't take many generations before the people on a such a ship to forget that they are on a space ship. That reality wouldn't have to be introduced until the ship was maybe one generation out or maybe only to the generation that would disembark.

  • February 17, 2019 at 6:33 pm

    If you go with almost the speed of light, wouldn’t you get to your destination much faster because of time dilation?

  • February 24, 2019 at 6:17 am

    I didn't know that about radiation deterioration in cryogenic suspension

  • March 13, 2019 at 8:38 pm

    Fleets 3 fleeets towards a distanation

  • March 16, 2019 at 6:46 pm

    Interesting design of space ships. Everyone likes to see what is foreseen for the future. I have a vision of what the spacecraft should look like.

  • March 29, 2019 at 5:37 pm

    What if….. Planets are not the original habitation. The big bang was a launching off the original habitat/existance that was failing. Meaning stars and solar sytems are the engines amd planets like earth ARE the generation ships. We are accelerating flying threw space…. What if we are on a course

  • May 2, 2019 at 10:02 pm

    You're assuming that population growth continues. Which would assume that every woman has like 3 children each which is not the case except in very third world nations like those in Africa. EVERY other nation on earth has below replacement fertility which is do to technology replacing procreation. Everyone has access to birth control and does not have children anymore. Prove me wrong.

  • May 5, 2019 at 4:08 am

    Alternatively, I suppose a sleeper ship could employ a crew of people who've undergone life extension, & have agreed to man the ship for the duration of the trip. Such people might be paid handsomely for their efforts – even more if they agree to stick around for a while once the destination is reached, & help the colony set up shop, then leave once the colony is safe & sustainable. They could even return in the same ship, & ferry others somewhere else. In this way, they could hitchhike across the galaxy! That's assuming hibernation could be perfected – a big if. "Everything leaks. Take my hydrogen… please!" ba-dum-bum – chshsh! tavi.

  • May 9, 2019 at 8:08 pm

    I only heard about your videos a few days ago from watching one of ask joes videos and I have to say I am really loving them

  • May 29, 2019 at 8:13 pm

    Frozen Disney rumor: I think and this is my own opinion, that the rumor started because someone saw a wax dummy that was going to be put up in a museum inside a metal case to keep it cold enough to not melt and it has a window so you can see into it so it looks not unlike a 1950's era sci-fi cryopod.

  • June 5, 2019 at 10:55 am

    the first name of Asimov and Clarke put together is your name 🤔🤔🤔

  • June 6, 2019 at 3:52 am

    This is very interesting!

  • June 8, 2019 at 4:46 pm

    Human nature is complicated. Maybe we right now should start a "City of Ember" experiment and study if a generational ship could work out at all? There will always be a Biff Tannen making life a living hell for all the others? Or can we remove psychopath genes?

  • June 29, 2019 at 11:41 am

    Everyone : commenting with their knowledge and argument
    Me : the narator cant say R

  • June 29, 2019 at 12:54 pm

    I like the concept presented in the bobiverse series, a mind uploaded into a von Neumann probe.

  • June 29, 2019 at 1:08 pm

    NASA: We are going to the Moon!
    Arthur: We are going to Tau Ceti!

  • July 16, 2019 at 6:45 am

    Third arms are actually pretty helpful for colonization

  • August 11, 2019 at 2:42 am

    So you got yourself clarketech, and it can be done well, but you know what i’ve never seen done adequately? A fantasy world with magic that exploits said magic to power it’s technologies? Would that be called magetech? Interesting creative thoughts abound there, most certainly. If wizards can generate fire by meditating without burning anything to produce emissions, would a mageworld have steam engines be their primary mode of locomotion? How many chain lightnings does it take to power a lightbulb? If you can levitate, and summon homonculi, why not sling that bugger into space?

  • August 11, 2019 at 3:08 pm

    Do you have any video discussing the generation ships in japanise anime. One that comes into mind is netflix godzilla. There they explore what happens when you leave a scorched earth and returns after generations and time dilation. Earth has developed in a very strange way. I found that fascinating eventhough the movie was more fantasy than hard sci fi. In that movie they also explored what happens if a alien pathogen enters earth and how earths biosphere, human introduces nano tech lifeforms and alien compete for dominance. Another fascinating topic is that it's more economical to wait out life to regenerate in a tomb than send yourself to space in a scorched earth scenario.

  • August 17, 2019 at 3:42 pm

    There is plenty to explore right here in our solar system.

  • August 18, 2019 at 4:36 am

    Stopped …went off and read "Rendezvous with Rama"..came back…cheers!

  • August 20, 2019 at 8:44 pm

    The first book of the Rama series was great, but the 2nd was bad enough it killed my interest in readi- even checking if there was a 3rd

  • September 1, 2019 at 11:54 pm

    There's no reason to send grown humans on slow ships. Instead, send 1 billion (for genetic variety) frozen DNAs of unborn humans, varieties of animal DNA, and stored-on-chips compendium of all human knowledge on a fast ship. At arrival, the programmed robots build Mckendree Cylinders (Oneill-like colonies made of carbon-fibers built large enough to hold an entire continent) to reproduce an earth-like environment for the new generations of humans who will be enculturated just as if they had stayed in the Sol-system, while they terraform Goldilocks-zone Rocky Planets and mine their system. Send back/receive data, and send back to Sol-system a small percentage of produced materials (kind of like an interstellar Ponzi-scheme) as "payment" for the project, and then send forward another fleet of colony ships to new stars. Home systems (ie Sol-system) can reproduce the colonized systems in specialized Mckendree cylinders and VR/Holodecks as pseudo-colony facsimiles. Repeat the process with each new colony.

  • September 14, 2019 at 11:22 pm

    There's something that bothers me about this whole thing. All of this relies on many, many people having children at above replacement rates. But everything we're seeing today shows that the more educated people become, the fewer children they have and the longer they wait to do it. Maybe I'm a dum-dum, but did Isaac ever talk about this when mentioning however many quadrillions of people we plan to have for all of this colony business?

  • September 16, 2019 at 7:23 pm

    [ ENGLISH ]

    The Leathal Qualitative Human Choice – A One World Government – Our Course in the Stellar Space

    the all humanity that will be affected by something terrible: The Leathal Qualitative Human Choice.
    The change of the governments and the exposure and breakdown of the financial institutions. The planet soon will be cleared of the old system and control.

    "ad astra per aspera !" ( is a Latin phrase which means any of the following: "Through hardships to the stars", "A rough road leads to the stars", or "To the stars through difficulties" )

    Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth

    ( please using the right click of your mouse, and Open Link in Next Private Window, )


    A escolha humana qualitativa de Leathal – um governo de um mundo – nosso curso no espaço estelar toda a humanidade que será afetada por algo terrível: A escolha humana qualitativa de Leathal. A mudança dos governos e da exposição e divisão das instituições financeiras. O planeta será cancelado logo do sistema e do controle velhos. “ad astra per aspera!” (é uma frase latino que signifique algum do seguinte: “Com as dificuldades às estrelas”, “uma estrada áspera conduz às estrelas”, ou “às estrelas com as dificuldades”) (por favor usando o direito – clique de seu rato, e a relação aberta na janela privada seguinte,)

    [ DEUTSCH ]
    Die qualitative menschliche Wahl Leathal – eine eine Welt regierungs- unser Kurs im Sternraum die alle Menschlichkeit, die durch schreckliches etwas beeinflußt wird: Die qualitative menschliche Wahl Leathal. Die Änderung der Regierungen und der Belichtung und Aufschlüsselung der Finanzinstitute. Der Planet bald wird vom alten System und von der Steuerung geklärt. „ad astra per aspera!“ (ist eine lateinische Phrase, die irgendwelche vom folgenden bedeutet: „Durch Härten zu den Sternen“, „eine raue Straße führt zu den Sternen“ oder „zu die Sterne durch Schwierigkeiten“) (bitte unter Verwendung des Rechtsklicks Ihrer Maus und öffnen Sie Link im Folgenden privaten Fenster,)

    [ ESPANOL ]
    La opción humana cualitativa de Leathal – gobierno de un mundo – nuestro curso en el espacio estelar toda la humanidad que será afectada por algo terrible: La opción humana cualitativa de Leathal. El cambio de los gobiernos y de la exposición y avería de las instituciones financieras. El planeta pronto será despejado del viejos sistema y control. “ad astra per aspera!” (es una frase latina que significa el siguiente un de los: “Con dificultades a las estrellas”, “un camino áspero lleva a las estrellas”, o “a las estrellas con dificultades”) (por favor usando el clic derecho de su ratón, y el vínculo abierto en la ventana privada siguiente,)

    [ ITALIANO ]
    La scelta umana qualitativa di Leathal – un un mondo governo il nostro corso nello spazio stellare tutta l'umanità che sarà colpita da qualche cosa di terribile: La scelta umana qualitativa di Leathal. Il cambiamento dei governi e dell'esposizione e ripartizione delle istituzioni finanziarie. Il pianeta presto sarà rimosso di vecchi sistema e controllo. “ad astra per aspera!„ (è una frase latina che significa c'è ne di quanto segue: “Con le difficoltà alle stelle„, “una strada ruvida conduce alle stelle„, o “alle stelle con le difficoltà„) (per favore facendo uso del cliccare con il pulsante destro del mouse del vostro mouse e del collegamento aperto in finestra privata seguente,)

    [ FRANÇAIS ]
    Le choix humain qualitatif de Leathal – un gouvernement de l'un monde – notre cours de l'espace stellaire la toute l'humanité qui sera affectée par quelque chose terrible : Le choix humain qualitatif de Leathal. Le changement des gouvernements et de l'exposition et panne des institutions financières. La planète bientôt sera dégagée du vieux système et contrôle. « ad astra per aspera ! » (est une expression latine qui signifie suivre l'un des : « Par des difficultés aux étoiles », « une route rugueuse mène aux étoiles », ou « aux étoiles par des difficultés ») (svp utilisant le droit – clic de votre souris, et le lien ouvert dans la prochaine fenêtre privée,)

    Η θανατηφόρα ποιοτική ανθρώπινη επιλογή – Μια Παγκόσμια Κυβέρνηση – Η πορεία μας στο αστρικό διάστημα. Όλη η ανθρωπότητα θα επηρεαστεί από κάτι τρομερό. Η θανατηφόρα ποιοτική ανθρώπινη επιλογή. Η αλλαγή των κυβερνήσεων και η έκθεση και η κατανομή των χρηματοπιστωτικών ιδρυμάτων. Ο πλανήτης σύντομα θα απαλλαγεί από το παλαιό σύστημα και τον έλεγχο. "ad astra per aspera !" "στ' άστρα μεσ' από δυσκολίες" (Το μέλλον μας είναι τα αστέρια)

    Όταν έχεις εξαλείψει το αδύνατο, αυτό που μένει, όσο απίθανο κι αν είναι, πρέπει να είναι η αλήθεια.

    ( παρακαλώ χρησιμοποιώντας το δεξιό κλικ του mouse, ανοίξτε τον επόμενο σύνδεσμο ( ιστοσελίδα ) σε ξεχωριστό παράθυρο προς τα δεξιά, )

  • October 3, 2019 at 6:56 pm

    11/10 I am gonna make it to that super earth and survive

  • October 13, 2019 at 2:46 pm

    You guys realize that his name is the combination of ISAAC Asimov and ARTHUR C Clark?
    Damn, I like this channel more and more

  • October 19, 2019 at 6:01 pm

    We need 30000 rockets to create a civilization in mars but nobody can pay it… Also re usable rockets that get water out of this world to mars for refining the salty parts of the sea… That way no more floods probably…


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